Mass and Energy Balances

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‘.$subject.’: ‘.$file_type.’‘; /* $SUBJECTS=array(”,’kinetics’,’thermo’,’meb’,’fluid_flow’,’heat_t’); $TITLE_1=array(”,’Energy of Activation’,’Calculation of Concentrations of Reactants and Products for a Given Conversion under Constant Pressure or Constant Volume Conditions’,’Calculation of Epsilon, the Fractional Volume Change, a Parameter Used Extensively for Variable Pressure Operations’,’Performance of a Batch Reactor’,’Flow Reactor’,’Performance of a CSTR or Mixed Flow Reactor’,’Performance of a CSTR or Mixed Flow Reactor’,’Performance of a CSTR or Mixed Flow Reactor’); $TITLE_2=array(”,’Ideal Gas Law’,’PVT Relationship Compressibility Factor, Fugacity Coefficient’,’Thermal Processes – Point and Path Functions, Intensive and Extensive Properties’,’Estimation of Equilibrium Constant’,’Estimation of Properties using three parameters’,’Equation of State – PVT Relationship’,’Virial Equation – Compressibility factor, Fugacity Coefficient, and Fugacity’,’Calculation of Equilibrium Constant’,’Vapor Pressure’,’Activity Coefficient’,’Activity Coefficient’,’PVT Relationship – van der Waals’,’PVT Relationship – Redlich Kwong’,’Adiabatic Process’,’Polytropic Process’,’Isothermal Process’,’Isobaric (Constant Pressure) Process’,’Isochoric (Constant Volume) Process’,’Vapor Liquid Equilibria’,’Vapor Liquid Equilibria’,’Excess Properties’,’Lewis and Randall Rule’,’Vapor Liquid Equilibrium’,’Vapor Liquid Equilibrium’,’Flow Processes’,’Flow Processes’,’Flow Processes – Compression of Liquids’,’Flow Processes’,’Fugacity Coefficient’,’Fugacity Coefficient’,’Excess Properties’,’Excess Properties – van Laar Coefficients’,’Fugacity Coefficient’,’Activity Coefficient at Infinite Dilution’,’Real Mixtures’,’Enthalpy of Vaporization’,’Enthalpy of Vaporization’,’Wilson Equation’,’Fugacity of Pure Liquid’,’Viscosity’); $TITLE_3=array(”,’Mean Heat Capacities For Gases’,’Calculation of adiabatic temperature’,’Calculation of excess air requirements’,’Calculation of heating value’,’Calculation of excess air requirements’,’Equilibrium Constant’,’Equilibrium Constant’); $TITLE_4=array(”,’Liquid Flow Measurement Using Pitot Tube’,’Orifice, Nozzle, Venturi’,’Flow Measurement – Rotameter’,’Bernoulli Equation’,’Bernoulli Equation’,’Fitting Losses Through Fittings and Valves as Equivalent Length as Number of Velocity Heads’,’Compressible Flow Isothermal – Diameter Measurement’,’Isentropic Gas Flow’,’Isothermal Gas Flow’,’Isentropic gas flow – Check’,’Effect of Area Variation on Isentropic Gas Flow’,’Effect of Area Variation on Isentropic Gas Flow’,’Converging Nozzle’,’Converging Nozzle’,’Converging – Diverging Nozzle’,’Converging – Diverging Nozzle’,’Adiabatic Flow in a Constant Area Duct’,’Adiabatic Flow in a Constant Area Duct with Friction’,’Frictionless Flow in a Constant Area Duct with Heat Transfer’,’Isentropic Flow Functions’,’Liquid Flow Measurement Using Pitot Tube<','Gas Flow Measurement Using Pitot Tube','Liquid Flow Measurement - Orifice','Liquid Flow Measurement Using Orifice','Liquid Flow Measurement Using Nozzle','Liquid Flow Measurement Using Nozzle','Gas Flow Measurement Using Nozzle','Liquid Flow Measurement Using Venturi','Gas Flow Measurement Using Venturi','Closed Pipe Flow - Pressure Drop Measurement','Closed Pipe flow - Length Determination','Closed Pipe flow - Velocity Determination','Closed Pipe flow - Pipe Diameter Determination','Closed Pipe flow - Pipe Roughness Determination','Compressible flow - Maximum Length','Compressible flow - Maximum Pressure Drop','Compressible flow - Length Determination','Compressible flow - Pressure Drop Estimation','Compressible flow - Diameter Determination','Gas and Vapor Sizing - Atmospheric Back Pressure','Gas and Vapor Sizing - Superimposed Constant Back Pressure','Gas and Vapor Sizing - Set Pressure Below 30 psig'); $TITLE_5=array('','Heat Transfer Through Composite Layer','Conduction Through A Cylindrical Body','Heat Loss from an Uninsulated Surface to Air','heat transfer for Natural/Free Convection ','Heat transfer for forced convection through a pipe','Special Case of Heat Transfer- Finned Surface','Heat transfer through an annulus:','Tube wall temperature','Design Coefficient','Driving Force for Heat Transfer, ΔT','Outlet Temperature','Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger','Condensation for Vertical Tubes','Wall of Finite Thickness Heated on Both Sides','Non-isothermal Cooling','Condensation of Vapors in Horizontal Tubes','17.','Radiation Losses','Condensation of Vapors in Vertical Tubes','Wall of Infinite Thickness Heated on One Side','Wall of Finite Thickness Heated on Both Side','Cylindrical Body','Isothermal Heating of Batch Contents by Internal Coil','Non-isothermal Batch Cooling','Heat of Tank Contents by an External Heat Exchanger','Heat Transfer in Agitated Vessel','Heat Transfer in a Buried Pipe','28. ','29. ','30. ','31. Natural Convection - Heat Loss from Hot-Water Pipes','Natural Convection on a Vertical Plate','Natural Convection Over Finned Surfaces','Natural Convection - Inside Enclosures','Natural Convection from Finned Surfaces and PCBs','Internal Forced Convection - Heating of Water in a Tube by Steam','Internal Forced Convection - Flow of Oil in a Pipeline through a lake','Internal Forced Convection - Pressure Drop in a Water Tube','Heating of Water by Resistance Heaters in a Tube','Forced Convection - Pipe Insulation for Thermal Burn Prevention','Forced Convection - Heat Loss from the Ducts of a Heating System','External Forced Convection - Flow of Hot Oil over a flat plate','External Forced Convection - Prevention of Fire Hazard in the Event of Oil Leakage','Forced Convection - Heat Loss from the Ducts of a Heating System','External Forced Convection - Cooling of a Plastic Sheets by Force Air', 'External Forced Convection - Drag Force Acting on a Pipe in a River','External Forced Convection - Heat Loss from a Steam Pipe in Windy Air','External Forced Convection - Cooling of a Steel Ball by Forced Air','Fundamentals of Convection - Temperature Rise of Oil in Journal Bearing','Fundamentals of Convection - Finding Convection Coefficient from Drag Measurement','Combined Natural Convection and Forced Convection - Assisted Flow','Overall U-Factor of Windows','Condensation of Vapors in Horizontal Tubes'); $IMAX=array('','8','40','7','42','52'); //$j=rand(1,5); for ($j=2;$j<=3;$j++){ $imax=$IMAX[$j]; //$i=rand(1,$imax); $subject=$SUBJECTS[$j]; $tname='TITLE_'.$j; echo '
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